Driving the energy transition: Iron as a potential key material in facilitating the large-scale storage and transport of carbon-free energy

On the part of Mainz University, Dr. Johannes Muntschick, Arne Niemann and Dr. F
On the part of Mainz University, Dr. Johannes Muntschick, Arne Niemann and Dr. Friedrich Plank (fltr) from the International Relations Unit of the JGU Institute of Political Science are involved in the Clean Circles project.

TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, and the Institute of Low-Carbon Industrial Processes of the German Aerospace Center collaborate in the new Clean Circles project

Iron has a great potential to contribute to the much needed energy transition. The metal and its oxides could be used in a circular system as a carbon-neutral energy carrier to store renewable energy, from wind and solar power for example. How exactly this could work is investigated in a joint project involving TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), and the Cottbus-based Institute of Low-Carbon Industrial Processes of the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The researchers of this Clean Circles project explore options for storing large quantities of renewable energy, transporting it, and making it available without CO2 emissions - a yet unsolved challenge for the energy transition. JGU's involvement in the cooperation project is coordinated by its Institute of Political Science. A team led by Professor Arne Niemann, Head of the International Relations unit at the Institute of Political Science, investigates in particular criteria and evidence which shall help to identify and evaluate potential third partner countries for the Clean Circles technology.

Iron as a sustainable energy carrier

The Clean Circles project is based on the idea of storing electrical energy generated from renewable resources in iron, thus making it storable and transportable. In a first step, electricity from renewable energy sources would be used to convert iron oxide to iron for the purposes of storing energy in it. The resultant iron dust could then be stored and transported to generate and supply energy elsewhere. To do this, iron would be oxidized again, ideally in converted former coal-fired power plants, producing CO2-free electricity. The resulting iron oxide, i.e., rust, could then be transported to locations where renewably generated electricity would be available for the next round of reduction. "This would create a green cycle, a process in which no CO2 escapes into the atmosphere," emphasized Dr. Friedrich Plank of the International Relations unit of JGU's Institute of Political Science.

One problem is that there is insufficient green electricity available in Germany, which would be needed to keep the cycle running. Therefore, an idea being considered is whether the reduction process can ideally take place in third countries where wind or solar energy is available in larger quantities. "These could also be countries outside the EU. In the end, what happens will depend on specific factors and political decisions," Dr. Johannes Muntschick, who is also working in the project, pointed out. It is with this in mind that the political scientists involved in the project are examining which approaches would be both acceptable to society in general and politically practicable. At present, the methodological and empirical fundamentals required for this analysis are not yet in place. But these are essential to avoid the same sort of failure suffered by the Desertec Industrial Initiative or to avoid time-consuming disputes such as on the siting of wind turbines. "In the preliminary phase it is important to provide the necessary information to ensure the support of the populations on both sides," added Professor Arne Niemann. He further noted that one should not only consider purely economic factors when choosing partner countries. "The war in Ukraine and the now impending gas shortage are examples that show us that political framework conditions play a key role," emphasized Professor Arne Niemann.

Such interdisciplinary collaboration of political scientists, natural scientists, and engineering in the field of renewable energy is probably unique. The research undertaken in the political science field was previously mainly concerned with aspects of international cooperation in energy partnerships or development aid policy projects, but new ground is being broken by innovative energy projects such as the Clean Circles technology. To prepare for the dialog on this new energy carrier and identify major actors and stakeholders, the team at Mainz University looked at what has occurred in the case of using hydrogen as a clean fuel and the discourses surrounding this issue at the EU level. "The aim here is to extrapolate the discourse on green hydrogen in Europe to the Clean Circles technology," Dr. Friedrich Plank concluded. The first results were presented to the cooperating partners during a Clean Circles retreat held in June 2022.

The Clean Circles project was launched in summer 2021. The lively exchange and close cooperation in this project between JGU and TU Darmstadt, here in particular with Professor Michèle Knodt of the Comparative Politics and European Integration research group, exemplifies how well members of the Rhine-Main Universities alliance work together on interdisciplinary future-oriented undertakings.

The Rhine-Main Universities alliance

As outstanding research universities in the Rhine-Main area, Goethe University Frankfurt, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, and the Technical University of Darmstadt have joined together to form the Rhine-Main Universities alliance. The universities have worked in close cooperation with each other for many years, leading to an agreement to form a strategic alliance in 2015 to increase the partners' collective academic capacity. By joining together, the universities are able to complement each other's strengths in research and promote strong research partnerships, expand the course and degree offerings for their students, and strengthen the exchange of knowledge in the region as well as networking with society in general.