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Chemistry - Physics - 22.02.2024
Polymer-Based Tunable Optical Components
Polymer-Based Tunable Optical Components
Felix H. Schacher, Dr Purushottam Poudel, Dr Sarah Walden & Isabelle Staude (l.t.r. Combining Two Established Systems to Create Something New "Both meta-surfaces and light-switchable polymers have been known in principle for decades," explains Sarah Walden from the Institute of Solid State Physics, who now leads a research group in Australia.

Earth Sciences - Physics - 21.02.2024
High resolution techniques reveal clues in 3.5 billion-year-old biomass
High resolution techniques reveal clues in 3.5 billion-year-old biomass
Research team analyses organic material from the early Earth tracing its origin and composition To learn about the first organisms on our planet, researchers have to analyse the rocks of the early Earth. These can only be found in a few places on the surface of the Earth. The Pilbara Craton in Western Australia is one of these rare sites: there are rocks there that are around 3.5 billion years old containing traces of the microorganisms that lived at that time.

Physics - Life Sciences - 13.02.2024
New Nanosensors Make Diagnostic Procedures More Sensitive
New Nanosensors Make Diagnostic Procedures More Sensitive
The nanosensors can be used to track reactions with invisible light, saving materials and time. The Fraunhofer Institute for Microelectronic Circuits and Systems IMS and Ruhr University Bochum, Germany, have developed a process that enables a new form of signal amplification for diagnostic tests. Through the advanced use of luminescent single walled carbon nanotubes in bioanalytics, test procedures can be carried out more sensitively, quickly and cheaply.

Physics - Innovation - 08.02.2024
How electron spectroscopy measures exciton 'holes'
How electron spectroscopy measures exciton ’holes’
Researchers gain insights into charge transfer at atomically thin interfaces between semiconductors. Semiconductors are ubiquitous in modern technology, working to either enable or prevent the flow of electricity. In order to understand the potential of two-dimensional semiconductors for future computer and photovoltaic technologies, researchers from the Universities of Göttingen, Marburg and Cambridge investigated the bond that builds between the electrons and holes contained in these materials.

Physics - 08.02.2024
New Approach to Determine Neutron Distribution in Atomic Nuclei
New Approach to Determine Neutron Distribution in Atomic Nuclei
Physicists from Heidelberg, the Netherlands and Switzerland, and the USA establish new value for the neutron skin of lead-208 Measurement data from collisions of heavy ions can provide insight into the neutron distribution in atomic nuclei, according to an international research team led by Dr Giuliano Giacalone from the Institute for Theoretical Physics of Heidelberg University.

Chemistry - Physics - 07.02.2024
GPT-3 for Chemical Research
GPT-3 for Chemical Research
GPT-3, the language model behind the well-known AI system ChatGPT, can also be utilised in chemistry to solve various scientific tasks. This was demonstrated by a team of researchers at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Friedrich Schiller University Jena, and the Helmholtz Institute for Polymers in Energy Applications (HIPOLE) Jena.

Computer Science - Physics - 29.01.2024
Utilising active microparticles for artificial intelligence
Utilising active microparticles for artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence using neural networks performs calculations digitally with the help of microelectronic chips. Physicists at Leipzig University have now created a type of neural network that works not with electricity but with so-called active colloidal particles. In their publication in the prestigious journal "Nature Communications", the researchers describe how these microparticles can be used as a physical system for artificial intelligence and the prediction of time series.

Physics - Life Sciences - 29.01.2024
Using active microparticles for artificial intelligence
Using active microparticles for artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence with neural networks performs calculations digitally with the help of microelectronic chips. Physicists at Leipzig University have now realized a form of neural network that does not work with electricity but with so-called active colloidal particles. Their publication in the renowned journal "Nature Communications" deals with the use of these microparticles as a physical system for artificial intelligence and the prediction of time series.

Physics - Innovation - 27.01.2024
Liquid crystals to control polarization inside laser-written waveguides
Liquid crystals to control polarization inside laser-written waveguides
Researchers have developed a new way to control and manipulate optical signals by embedding a liquid crystal layer into waveguides created with direct laser writing. The new devices enable electro-optical control of polarization, which could open new possibilities for chip-based devices and complex photonic circuits based on femtosecond-written waveguides.

Physics - History / Archeology - 25.01.2024
Using the World's First Mobile Computer Tomography Device to Decipher Hidden Texts
Using the World’s First Mobile Computer Tomography Device to Decipher Hidden Texts
Researchers in the Cluster of Excellence Understanding Written Artefacts at Universität Hamburg and the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) have developed the world's only transportable computer tomography device. Using this device, we can now read 4,000 year old cuneiform texts from Mesopotamia for the first time.

Physics - Chemistry - 25.01.2024
Precise measurements of the heaviest atoms
Precise measurements of the heaviest atoms
An international research team has successfully conducted ultra-precise X-ray spectroscopic measurements of helium-like uranium. The team, which includes researchers from Friedrich Schiller University Jena and the Helmholtz Institute Jena, has published results demonstrating their success in disentangling and separately testing one-electron two-loop and two-electron quantum electrodynamic effects for extremely strong Coulomb fields of the heaviest nuclei for the first time.

Physics - Electroengineering - 22.01.2024
Topological Quantum Device Produced
Topological Quantum Device Produced
A significant breakthrough has been achieved by quantum physicists from Dresden and Würzburg. They've created a semiconductor device where exceptional robustness and sensitivity are ensured by a quantum phenomenon. Semiconductor devices are tiny switching components that control electron flow in modern electronic devices.

Astronomy / Space - Physics - 18.01.2024
Mysterious object attracts attention
Mysterious object attracts attention
Data from the MeerKAT radio telescope reveal an object at the boundary between a black hole and a neutron star When astronomers cannot explain something directly, it often becomes really exciting. An international team led by researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy and with the participation of the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics has now discovered a mysterious tandem that has never been observed before: a system consisting of a neutron star and an object that, at first glance, should not even exist.

Physics - Astronomy / Space - 21.12.2023
The goldmine of a neutron star collision
The goldmine of a neutron star collision
International research team models the different signatures of a kilonova explosion simultaneously for the first time Neutron stars are the end products of massive stars and gather together a large part of the original stellar mass in a super-dense star with a diameter of only around ten kilometres.

Earth Sciences - Physics - 19.12.2023
New Findings on Rock Movements from the Earth’s Interior
Geologists from Heidelberg and Frankfurt simulate thermo-mechanical behaviour of a white schist from the Alps Movements of rocks from deep in the Earth to the surface could occur under different circumstances than previously thought, challenging our current understanding of plate tectonics and mountain-building.

Life Sciences - Physics - 04.12.2023
New method for localizing modifications in mRNA
New method for localizing modifications in mRNA
Andrea Rentmeister's team detects methylated sites with click chemistry The genetic information of an organism is stored in the form of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) in every cell. In order to be able to produce proteins with this blueprint, the DNA is first transcribed into so-called mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid).

Astronomy / Space - Physics - 01.12.2023
A new possible explanation for the Hubble tension
A new possible explanation for the Hubble tension
Study by the Universities of Bonn and St. Andrews proposes a solution to one of the great mysteries of cosmology The universe is expanding. How fast it does so is described by the so-called Hubble-Lemaitre constant. But there is a dispute about how big this constant actually is: Different measurement methods provide contradictory values.

Chemistry - Physics - 29.11.2023
Releasing Brakes on Biocatalysis
Releasing Brakes on Biocatalysis
Formaldehyde can inhibit enzymes that produce hydrogen particularly efficiently. Researchers from Bochum have discovered how this can be prevented. Enzymes from microorganisms can produce hydrogen (H2) under certain conditions, which makes them potential biocatalysts for biobased H2 technologies. In order to make this hydrogen production efficient, researchers are trying to identify and eliminate possible limiting factors.

Life Sciences - Physics - 24.11.2023
How Bacteria Defend Themselves Against Plasmas
How Bacteria Defend Themselves Against Plasmas
A heat shock protein protects the cells against protein clumping. It degrades, however, over longer treatment periods. Plasmas are used, for example, in wound treatment against pathogens that are resistant to antibiotics. However, bacteria can defend themselves: They employ a heat shock protein that protects them.

Life Sciences - Physics - 21.11.2023
Tiny Beads Preserve Enzymes for Biocatalysis
Tiny Beads Preserve Enzymes for Biocatalysis
Plasmas can provide the co-substrate needed for biocatalysis of valuable substances, but are also harmful to enzymes. By attaching enzymes to small beads the enzymes are protected and remain active up to 44 times longer. Some enzymes, such as the one derived from fungi and investigated in this study, are able to produce valuable substances such as the fragrance (R)-1-phenylethanol.
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