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Environment - Life Sciences - 24.03.2021
How Grasslands respond to climate change
How Grasslands respond to climate change
Effects of CO2 increase were already apparent in the past century The rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and concurrent climate change has led to yield reductions of grass-rich grassland vegetation in the past century. This observation was made by researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) who, working jointly with colleagues from Rothamsted (U.K.), conducted a study on the world's oldest permanent ecological experiment there.

Life Sciences - 23.03.2021
Cephalopods: Older Than Was Thought?
Cephalopods: Older Than Was Thought?
Fossil find from Canada could rewrite the evolutionary history of invertebrate organisms The possibly oldest cephalopods in the earth's history stem from the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland (Canada). They were discovered by earth scientists from Heidelberg University. The 522 million-year-old fossils could turn out to be the first known form of these highly evolved invertebrate organisms, whose living descendants today include species such as the cuttlefish, octopus and nautilus.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 23.03.2021
Where and how plants detect the nutrient potassium
Where and how plants detect the nutrient potassium
Newly discovered group of cells in the root tip reacts to potassium deficiency and directs signalling pathways mediating plant adaptation Potassium is an essential nutrient for all living things. Plants need it in large quantities, especially for growth and in order to withstand stress better. For this reason, they absorb large quantities of potassium from the soil.

Earth Sciences - Astronomy / Space Science - 23.03.2021
The same sea level for everyone
The same sea level for everyone
The Earth's gravity field as the basis for an International Height Reference System Maps generally indicate elevation in meters above sea level. But sea level is not the same everywhere. A group of experts headed by the Technical University of Munich (TUM), has developed an International Height Reference System (IHRS) that will unify geodetic measurements worldwide.

Social Sciences - 23.03.2021
Bilingual babies prefer
Bilingual babies prefer "baby talk" in their native languages
International research team including Göttingen University investigates babies- preference for type of speech and language A unique study of hundreds of babies across four continents shows that all babies respond more to infant-directed speech - baby talk - than they do to the type of speech directed at an adult.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 22.03.2021
Cells On the Rack
Cells On the Rack
Device the size of a few micrometres provides insight into how cells respond to mechanical stress Cell behaviour - for instance during wound healing - is controlled by biological factors and chemical substances, with physical forces such as pressure or tension also playing a role.

Life Sciences - 19.03.2021
Eagle Shark Flew Through the Ocean 93 Million Years Ago
Eagle Shark Flew Through the Ocean 93 Million Years Ago
New insights into the history of shark evolution are offered by the fossil of a hitherto unknown primeval fish. It was discovered in a quarry in Mexico by a European-Mexican paleontological team, of which Wolfgang Stinnesbeck from Heidelberg University is a member. The find is a type of shark from the Cretaceous Period.

Astronomy / Space Science - 18.03.2021
Cosmic web offers insights into the history of the Universe
Cosmic web offers insights into the history of the Universe
Research team including Göttingen University observe for the first time extremely faint filaments The Universe is criss-crossed by a cosmic web consisting of large filamentary gas structures in which galaxies should form. The existence of this network confirms the most important predictions about how the structure of the Universe changes.

Economics / Business - Environment - 18.03.2021
Planning tool for cargo bike logistics
Planning tool for cargo bike logistics
Research team explores potential for package delivery Cargo bikes could play a much bigger role in urban package delivery. This conclusion was reached in a study based on the cities of Munich and Regensburg, where around one seventh of delivery-related CO2 emissions could be reduced. The research team has developed a planning tool to help companies and municipalities identify the potential for cargo bikes in city districts.

Life Sciences - Psychology - 18.03.2021
How gamblers plan their actions to maximize rewards
A study in biological psychology has shown that habitual gamblers use strategies during reinforcement learning that differ from those of the control group. This difference could be caused by changes in the dopamine system that influence strategic planning. In their pursuit of maximum reward, people suffering from gambling disorder rely less on exploring new but potentially better strategies, and more on proven courses of action that have already led to success in the past.

Agronomy / Food Science - 18.03.2021
Using Plant Hormones to Boost Agricultural Crop Yield
Using Plant Hormones to Boost Agricultural Crop Yield
Researchers at Freie Universität Berlin have discovered genes that determine oilseed rape yield No 045/2021 from Mar 18, 2021 A research team at Freie Universität Berlin led by the biologist Professor Thomas Schmülling has recently published a study on their success in increasing oilseed rape yield by mutating the specific genes responsible for degrading the plant hormone cytokinin.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 17.03.2021
Flying observatory: SOFIA/GREAT observations offer new insights into star formation
Flying observatory: SOFIA/GREAT observations offer new insights into star formation
The flying observatory SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy) was stationed at Cologne Bonn Airport until 16 March 2021 / A research team from the University of Cologne used it to observe regions of the sky in which stars are forming The flying observatory SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy) has successfully completed its observation flights from Cologne Bonn Airport.

Health - Life Sciences - 17.03.2021
Cancer therapy: How our cells are becoming resistant to medication
New study gives hope for more effective therapies Human cells are constantly changing shape. Biologists know that these morphological changes reflect changes in a cell's function but our ability to understand the meaning behind a cell's shape has, to date, been limited. In their new study Rune Linding from Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (HU) and his colleagues have utilized artificial intelligence to learn, and interpret, changes in the morphology of cancer cells in order to understand how these cells are becoming resistant to cancer medication.

Life Sciences - Health - 16.03.2021
The astonishing self-organization skills of the brain
A team of researchers from Tübingen and Israel uncovers how brain structures can maintain function and stable dynamics even in unusual conditions. Their results might lay the foundations for better understanding and treating conditions like epilepsy and autism. The neurons in our brains are connected with each other, forming small functional units called neural circuits.

Life Sciences - 12.03.2021
New proteins
New proteins "out of nothing"
Proteins are the key component in all modern forms of life. Haemoglobin, for example, transports the oxygen in our blood; photosynthesis proteins in the leaves of plants convert sunlight into energy; and fungal enzymes help us to brew beer and bake bread. Researchers have long been examining the question of how proteins mutate or come into existence in the course of millennia.

Pedagogy - 09.03.2021
Schools are on a good track amidst the coronavirus crisis
Schools are on a good track amidst the coronavirus crisis
In the study "Continuity and Change of Schools in Times of Crisis" (Kontinuität und Wandel der Schule in Krisenzeiten - KWiK), school principals were asked how they are mastering the challenges posed by the coronavirus pandemic. Initial results from the study paint a positive picture but reveal the need for some catching up as well.

Environment - 08.03.2021
Unique sensor network for measuring greenhouse gases
Unique sensor network for measuring greenhouse gases
MUCCnet allows quantification of urban greenhouse gas emissions Munich is home to the world's first fully automated sensor network for measuring urban greenhouse gas emissions based on ground-based remote sensing of the atmosphere. It has been developed by scientists in the group of Jia Chen, Professor of Environmental Sensing and Modeling at the Technical University of Munich (TUM).

Life Sciences - Health - 08.03.2021
Hybrid microbes: Model study explores genome transfer between different strains of bacteria
Study at University of Cologne shows that the exchange of genes drives functional changes in bacteria very rapidly / Publication in PNAS Bacteria integrate genetic material from other bacterial strains more easily than previously thought, which can lead to improved fitness and accelerated evolution.

Health - 08.03.2021
Covid-19 risk increases with airborne pollen
Increased pollen concentrations correlate with higher SARS-CoV-2 infection rates When airborne pollen levels are higher, increased SARS-CoV-2 infection rates can be observed. These results were determined by a large-scale study conducted by an international team headed by researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the Helmholtz Zentrum München.

Astronomy / Space Science - Environment - 08.03.2021
Ideal for Analysing Planetary Atmospheres
Ideal for Analysing Planetary Atmospheres
By analysing signals from the star Gliese 486, an international research team has discovered a hot rocky exoplanet with remains of a planetary atmosphere. Due to its characteristics, it is ideally suited for testing future observational methods of studying distant planetary atmospheres. The discovery of Gliese 486b, as the new planet has been named, was made possible by the CARMENES instrument.
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