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Life Sciences - Social Sciences - 20.02.2024
Ancient genomes reveal Down Syndrome in past societies
Ancient genomes reveal Down Syndrome in past societies
Burials show that children with Down Syndrome and Edwards Syndrome were recognized as members of their communities An international team of researchers has analysed the DNA from a world-wide sample of nearly 10,000 ancient individuals to search for cases of Down Syndrome, an uncommon genetic condition caused by the presence of an additional copy of Chromosome 21.

Environment - Life Sciences - 19.02.2024
From rainforest to plantation: conversion shapes food webs and biodiversity
From rainforest to plantation: conversion shapes food webs and biodiversity
Research team investigates effects of changing land use on ecosystems in Sumatra . Every day, large areas of rainforest are converted into plantations. Biodiversity and the ecosystem are changing drastically as a result. However, knowledge about the consequences is patchy: previous studies have either focused on the diversity of species or the functioning of the ecosystem.

Health - Psychology - 19.02.2024
Physical activity counteracts the negative consequences of being alone
Physical activity counteracts the negative consequences of being alone
Physical activity in everyday life has the potential to compensate for the negative consequences of being alone on well-being - especially in psychologically and neurobiologically vulnerable people. Social isolation and loneliness are major societal problems. Their negative impact on mental health has been exacerbated worldwide by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Chemistry - Pharmacology - 19.02.2024
Turning One into Eight
Turning One into Eight
University of Bonn chemists invent technique for producing variants of natural substances To synthesize potential drugs or natural products, you need natural substances in specific mirror-image variants and with a high degree of purity. For the first time, chemists at the University of Bonn have succeeded in producing all'eight possible variants of polypropionate building blocks from a single starting material in a relatively straightforward process.

Environment - 19.02.2024
The cultural evolution of collective property rights
The cultural evolution of collective property rights
The evolution of sustainable institutions critically depends on clearly defined and enforced access rights Common pool resources comprise around 65 percent of Earth's surface and vast tracts of the ocean. While examples of successful governance of these resources exist, the circumstances and mechanisms behind their development have remained unclear.

Psychology - Health - 19.02.2024
Schema therapy is effective for treating severe depression
Schema therapy is effective for treating severe depression
In an uniquely extensive study, researchers were able to demonstrate the clinical benefits of schema therapy in the context of inpatient treatment. This therapy is therefore a promising alternative for the treatment of severe depression. Schema therapy is increasingly being used as a psychotherapeutic method.

Chemistry - Environment - 16.02.2024
Organic synthesis with outstanding atom economy
Organic synthesis with outstanding atom economy
Research team at Göttingen University develops environmentally friendly iron catalysis using light as an energy source A research team at the University of Göttingen has discovered an innovative strategy in chemical synthesis that combines iron-mediated carbon-hydrogen bond conversion with the concept of photocatalysis.

Environment - 16.02.2024
Spy-satellite images offer insights into historical ecosystem changes
Spy-satellite images offer insights into historical ecosystem changes
New study advocates the use of more than one million declassified images for ecology and conservation. A large number of historical spy-satellite photographs from the Cold War Era were declassified decades ago. This valuable remote sensing data has been utilised by scientists across a wide range of disciplines from archaeology to civil engineering.

Life Sciences - 15.02.2024
How a wayside weed builds up explosive force
How a wayside weed builds up explosive force
Hairy bittercress is one of those plants that hurl their seeds in all directions to spread them effectively. A research team has now discovered that to do this, the plant uses a previously unknown mechanism which makes the seed pods contract and snap open, acting almost like a muscle. Dr. Gabriella Mosca at the University of Tübingen's Center for Plant Molecular Biology was one of the lead authors in this study headed by Dr. Angela Hay from the Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research in Cologne.

Health - Innovation - 15.02.2024
Digitalisation in the healthcare system
Research team at the University of Göttingen aims to overcome digital barriers in the healthcare sector Digitalisation offers enormous opportunities within the healthcare sector: The evaluation of radiological image files using artificial intelligence can reduce the workload of radiologists, while the electronic maternity pass can improve the care of mothers-to-be.

Health - Environment - 14.02.2024
Why do(n't) people support being nudged towards healthier diets?
Why do(n’t) people support being nudged towards healthier diets?
Researchers investigate how individual characteristics and the design of food choice -nudges- influence support for their adoption You may not realise it, but -nudge- has been used by businesses, policy-makers and governments for years to prod the public into making different choices. Small changes in our environment can -nudge- us into different behaviours without restricting the options available to us.

Chemistry - 14.02.2024
As easy as counting to ten - a new rule for catalysts' design
As easy as counting to ten - a new rule for catalysts’ design
The 'ten electron rule' provides guidance for the design of single-atom alloy catalysts for targeted chemical reactions. A collaborative team from three British universities and from Humboldt-Universität have discovered a very simple rule to design single-atom alloy catalysts for chemical reactions.

Life Sciences - 14.02.2024
Do apes have humor?
Do apes have humor?
Babies playfully tease others as young as eight months of age. Since language is not required for this behavior, similar kinds of playful teasing might be present in non-human animals. Now cognitive biologists and primatologists from the University of California Los Angeles, the Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior , Indiana University, and the University of California San Diego have documented playful teasing in four species of great apes.

Physics - Life Sciences - 13.02.2024
New Nanosensors Make Diagnostic Procedures More Sensitive
New Nanosensors Make Diagnostic Procedures More Sensitive
The nanosensors can be used to track reactions with invisible light, saving materials and time. The Fraunhofer Institute for Microelectronic Circuits and Systems IMS and Ruhr University Bochum, Germany, have developed a process that enables a new form of signal amplification for diagnostic tests. Through the advanced use of luminescent single walled carbon nanotubes in bioanalytics, test procedures can be carried out more sensitively, quickly and cheaply.

Life Sciences - 13.02.2024
Desert Ants: The Magnetic Field Calibrates the Navigation System
Desert Ants: The Magnetic Field Calibrates the Navigation System
Desert ants find their way during an early learning phase with the help of the Earth's magnetic field. The associated learning process leaves clear traces in their nervous system. This is shown in a new study by a Würzburg research team. They are only a few centimeters tall and their brains have a comparatively simple structure with less than one million neurons.

Social Sciences - Politics - 12.02.2024
’The role of social benefits for migration is overestimated’
What factors determine which countries people migrate to? Tim Müller from the Berlin Institute for Empirical Integration and Migration Research (BIM) has analysed this in a study of 160 countries. According to the study, important pull factors for migration are not so much social benefits, but rather good job opportunities, democratic conditions and the national language.

Transport - 12.02.2024
Automated driving: Scientists test radar sensors in a virtual environment
Automated driving: Scientists test radar sensors in a virtual environment
Vehicles are approved for road use after they have undergone extensive road safety tests. However, suitable test and approval procedures still need to be developed for automated driving cars. In the German-Japanese research project VIVID, a research team from TU Ilmenau, together with a large project consortium, tested various scenarios in road traffic in a virtual environment and tested radar sensors to detect the surroundings.

Life Sciences - 09.02.2024
Rainwater significantly reduces damage from lightning strikes to the head
Rainwater significantly reduces damage from lightning strikes to the head
Research carried out by the Technische Universität Ilmenau has shown that rainwater on the scalp can reduce the damage caused by direct lightning strikes to the head. In comparison to dry scalps, wet scalps are less severely struck and the wetness also reduces the electrical current to which the brain is exposed.

Economics - 09.02.2024
More work performance through transparent incentives
More work performance through transparent incentives
Research team investigates the effectiveness of promised rewards . Bonuses and promotions - companies use incentives like these to motivate their employees to perform well. At the same time, many managers exercise discretion as to whom they reward, when and how. Researchers from the University of Göttingen, Bard College Berlin and the University of Frankfurt have investigated how the willingness of employees to perform changes when they expect a possible disappointment when a reward is promised.

Physics - Innovation - 08.02.2024
How electron spectroscopy measures exciton 'holes'
How electron spectroscopy measures exciton ’holes’
Researchers gain insights into charge transfer at atomically thin interfaces between semiconductors. Semiconductors are ubiquitous in modern technology, working to either enable or prevent the flow of electricity. In order to understand the potential of two-dimensional semiconductors for future computer and photovoltaic technologies, researchers from the Universities of Göttingen, Marburg and Cambridge investigated the bond that builds between the electrons and holes contained in these materials.
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