Artificial hail for more accurate weather forecasts

Vertical wind tunnel at Mainz University supplies important data to facilitate the prediction of heavy rain, hail, and graupel precipitation

A rimed ice particle, in this case a graupel pellet, created for experimental us
A rimed ice particle, in this case a graupel pellet, created for experimental use in the Mainz vertical wind tunnel.

When the low-pressure system dubbed Bernd decided to park itself over part of Central Europe in the summer of 2021, the hazards associated with excessive rainfall events were made dramatically apparent in the form of the resultant catastrophic flooding. Weather records show that extreme natural occurrences such as drought, but also heavy rainfall and hail storms, are likely to occur even more frequently in this part of the world as a result of climate change. And their consequences could become even more devastating. ...

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